The kidneys are one of the main gatekeepers responsible for ridding the body of waste, and when they don't function properly a person can end up with uremic poisoning. And uremic poisoning is much more than just a kidney problem, because kidneys that aren't functioning properly can allow toxins to build up in other organs of the body, potentially creating a deadly situation if not noticed and treated quickly.
Uremic poisoning and related kidney problems can result from food poisoning and other illnesses even years after the those illnesses have come and gone, scientists have said in speaking to the Associated Press. The article notes that "E. coli and certain other foodborne illnesses can sometimes trigger serious health problems months or years after patients survived that initial bout." And with food poisoning cases being seem more often, researchers are concerned about the possible long-term health risks these people may face.
The article mentions cases of high blood pressure, kidney damage, and even complete kidney failure as long as 20 years after a person suffered from the initial illness.
The Web site of the American Association of Kidney Patients has an article explaining the symptoms of uremic poisoning, detailing the signs a person may notice when uremic poisoning affects the brain and nervous system, digestive system, heart and lungs, skins, etc.